1/2 of 16--8
1/3 of 9--9
It does not matter which way you fill in the shape, just as long as there is a certain amount filled in to represent your fraction.
The flags were a bit more difficult but there is a technique to solving them:
!--Pictures coming soon--!
Just divide the rectangle into sections or try to fit together the filled-in shapes to determine how much of the flag is shaded.
blue book--second page:
Tell what fraction the top line is of the bottom line
Numerator over Denominator--Part over whole--first # over second #